Saturday, May 23, 2020

Why Did the Americans Win the Mexican-American War

From 1846 to 1848, the United States of America and Mexico fought the Mexican-American War. There were many causes of the war, but the biggest reasons were Mexicos lingering resentment over the loss of Texas and the Americans desire for Mexicos western lands, such as California and New Mexico. The Americans believed their nation should extend to the Pacific: this belief was called Manifest Destiny. The Americans invaded on three fronts. A relatively small expedition was sent to secure the desired western territories: it soon conquered California and the rest of the current U.S. southwest. A second invasion came from the north through Texas. A third landed near Veracruz and fought its way inland. By late 1847, the Americans had captured Mexico City, which made the Mexicans agree to a peace treaty which ceded all of the lands the U.S. had wanted. But why did the U.S. win? The armies sent to Mexico were relatively small, peaking at about 8,500 soldiers. The Americans were outnumbered in nearly every battle they fought. The entire war was fought on Mexican soil, which should have given the Mexicans an advantage. Yet not only did the Americans win the war, they also won every major engagement. Why did they win so decisively? The U.S. had Superior Firepower Artillery (cannons and mortars) was an important part of warfare in 1846. The Mexicans had decent artillery, including the legendary St. Patricks Battalion, but the Americans had the best in the world at the time. American cannon crews had roughly double the effective range of their Mexican counterparts and their deadly, accurate fire made the difference in several battles, most notably the Battle of Palo Alto. Also, the Americans first deployed the flying artillery in this war: relatively lightweight but deadly cannons and mortars that could be swiftly redeployed to different parts of the battlefield as needed. This advance in artillery strategy greatly helped the American war effort. Better Generals The American invasion from the north was led by General Zachary Taylor, who would later become President of the United States. Taylor was an excellent strategist: when faced with the imposingly fortified city of Monterrey, he saw its weakness right away: the fortified points of the city were too far from one another: his battle plan was to pick them off one by one. The second American army, attacking from the east, was led by General Winfield Scott, probably the best tactical General of his generation. He liked to attack where he was least expected and more than once surprised his opponents by coming at them from seemingly out of nowhere. His plans for battles such as Cerro Gordo and Chapultepec were masterful. The Mexican Generals, such as the legendarily inept Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, were way outclassed. Better Junior Officers The Mexican-American War was the first in which officers trained at the West Point Military Academy saw serious action. Time and again, these men proved the value of their education and skill. More than one battle turned on the actions of a brave Captain or Major. Many of the men who were junior officers in this war would become Generals 15 years later in the Civil War, including Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant, P.G.T. Beauregard, George Pickett, James Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, George McClellan, George Meade, Joseph Johnston, and others. General Winfield Scott himself said that he would not have won the war without the men from West Point under his command. Infighting Among the Mexicans Mexican politics was extremely chaotic at that time. Politicians, Generals and other would-be leaders fought for power, making alliances and stabbing one another in the back. Mexicos leaders were unable to unite even in the face of a common enemy battling its way across Mexico. General Santa Anna and General Gabriel Victoria hated one another so badly that at the Battle of Contreras, Victoria purposely left a hole in Santa Annas defenses, hoping the Americans would exploit it and make Santa Anna look bad: Santa Anna returned the favor by not coming to Victorias aid when the Americans attacked his position. This is only one example of many of Mexican military leaders putting their own interests first during the war. Poor Mexican Leadership If Mexicos generals were bad, their politicians were worse. The Presidency of Mexico changed hands several times during the Mexican-American War. Some administrations lasted only days. Generals removed politicians from power and vice-versa. These men often differed ideologically from their predecessors and successors, making any kind of continuity impossible. In the face of such chaos, troops were rarely paid or given what they needed to win, such as ammunition. Regional leaders, such as governors, often refused to send any aid at all to the central government, in some cases because they had serious problems of their own at home. With no one firmly in command, the Mexican war effort was doomed to fail. Better Resources The American government committed plenty of cash to the war effort. The soldiers had good guns and uniforms, enough food, high-quality artillery and horses and just about everything else they needed. The Mexicans, on the other hand, were totally broke during the entire war. Loans were forced from the rich and the church, but still corruption was rampant and the soldiers were poorly equipped and trained. Ammunition was often in short supply: the Battle of Churubusco might have resulted in a Mexican victory, had ammunition arrived for the defenders in time. Mexicos Problems The war with the U.S. was certainly Mexicos biggest problem in 1847†¦but it wasnt the only one. In the face of the chaos in Mexico City, small rebellions were breaking out all over Mexico. The worst was in the Yucatà ¡n, where indigenous communities which had been repressed for centuries took up arms in the knowledge that the Mexican army was hundreds of miles away. Thousands were killed and by 1847 the major cities were under siege. The story was similar elsewhere as impoverished peasants rebelled against their oppressors. Mexico also had enormous debts and no money in the treasury to pay them. By early 1848 it was an easy decision to make peace with the Americans: it was the easiest of the problems to solve, and the Americans were also willing to give Mexico $15 million as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Sources Eisenhower, John S.D. So Far from God: the U.S. War with Mexico, 1846-1848. Norman: the University of Oklahoma Press, 1989Henderson, Timothy J. A Glorious Defeat: Mexico and its War with the United States.New York: Hill and Wang, 2007.Hogan, Michael. The Irish Soldiers of Mexico. Createspace, 2011.Wheelan, Joseph. Invading Mexico: Americas Continental Dream and the Mexican War, 1846-1848. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2007.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Nursing and Health Care - 1204 Words

Impact of Institute of Medicine on Nursing Ermina Rosic Grand Canyon University: NRS-430V December 14, 2014 The Institute of Medicine Report On Future of Nursing The Institute of Medicine (IOM) is a national, independent, non-profit organization whose purpose is to provide guidance, advice, and analysis of the field of medicine. The recent IOM report regarding the future of nursing gives us a glimpse of the dynamic and progressive changes that the field of nursing will experience in the coming decade. The Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2012) report focuses on the nurses as the largest group of health care professionals and identifies nurses as key leaders in health care reform. The nursing profession is the largest group of†¦show more content†¦To have strong leadership skills registered nurses must be knowledgeable and competent in the area of their expertise. Some of the additional competencies include great communication skills, data-driven decision making, health care system operations, and principles of team work and care coordination (Lakasse, 2013). Nurses need to expand leadership skills beyond the clinical setting to improve and support the vision for the health care. Changing Current Practice to Meet the Goals of IOM As professionals we must remember that we cannot continue to practice based on attitudes such as â€Å"we have always done it this way†, or â€Å"if is it not broken we do not need to fix it.† We must allow ourselves to grow in our profession and in healthcare. Nurses must be self-motivated to learn and to follow the recommendations from the IOM (2010) by pursuing additional certifications and constantly being students of their craft. In essence, the IOM report advocates improving ourselves in order to help our patients. In the coming years, with the increased number of nurses trained to higher levels, we will see a trend towards an expanded scope of practice, greater autonomy, and uniform practice. This evolution, not only advocated by the IOM but necessitated by the changing healthcare environment, will allow nursing as a profession to take on a greater role not only in the delivery of careShow MoreRelatedNursing An d Health Care Administrator1103 Words   |  5 PagesGiving Nurses More Respect For Sara P. Thomas Nursing and Health Care Administrator Benson Mathew Nursing Student Irving, TX January 4, 2015 1200 Indy Circle Irving, TX 75060 January 04, 2015 Sara P. Thomas Nursing and Health Care Administrator 1901 North MacArthur Boulevard Irving, TX 75061 Dear Mrs. Thomas: This is my report for Giving Nurses More Respect I ve learned a lot about all the work that nurses do in hospitals while researching for this report. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

MBA Future Free Essays

I have a strong interest in pursuing a master of business administration (MBA) degree, as I believe it will be beneficial in helping me achieve my short term and long-term goals. It will make me competent enough to fit in the wider job market. This will come with increased income earning which is a key to good life. We will write a custom essay sample on MBA Future or any similar topic only for you Order Now Good life or better living is everyone’s dream while advancing in one’s career and being no exceptional I want to pursue it for that cause. I have a wealth of experience from my educational background. I have also gained work experience from different positions over the years the degree will improve my efficiency when combined with the qualities I already have. I intend to take a major in marketing that I have been specializing in and a minor in entrepreneurship. I took a B.A Business Administration with a concentration in marketing. I graduated with a 3.5 in major and outstanding performance rendered me honors. Currently I am working within media advertising that comprises of television and radio. Pursuing this degree will equip me with the necessary expertise to be in the capacity of handling of handling issues appropriately especially at senior positions. Since my long term goal is to be president of a company. (http://www.unhmba.org) My other interest is researching brand management and the degree program will enrich me in skills needed in this area. I will be better placed with the ground information and the theoretical skills from the class. I have demonstrable ability to perform excellently in business classes and given the opportunity I would be outstanding in business school. My main interest is in the entertainment industry of which I have a solid background on. In 2001 I worked for a small marketing and event-planning firm that has now advanced. My 3 years experience when working with Sony-BMG as an assistance field marketing representative gave me exposure to the world of marketing and is a plus to my skills. I am proud to be part of the team that saw eWork Inc company grow from a small marketing and research to what the company is now. I was very influential especially on the Southeast region. I handle more than 30 people in my current position the skills I would get will improve my leadership skills. Working in my current position entails conducting movie surveys as well as holding premiers for upcoming movies. I am part owner of a t-shirt company that deals with presidential candidate. This entails strategic. Marketing plans to succeed and hence calls for skills or tact. To gain maximum exposure we plan to participate in the famous Oprah Winfrey show. My long-term goal of being a president of a T.V production company and being responsible for the marketing and company sponsorships will be well realized after attaining skills in the MBA program. (http://www.unhmba.org) I have constantly been involved in volunteering activities like in a mentor program that helps risk teens, AID Atlanta, hands on Atlanta and MS walk where I was among the top. Taking classes in the spring will enable me to be well prepared in joining the business school. My main reasons for choosing University of D and Wayne state is that its location will reduce the distance barriers from my fiancà © who has just moved to Detroit. They offer attractive placement rates and the small classes will offer a favorable or conducive environment for learning. It is also in a place where jobs will be easily accessible. Reference: United Network of help with Masters of Business Administration programs.2007. Retrieved on 31st October 2007 from http://www.unhmba.org    How to cite MBA Future, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Richard Branson and the Virgin Group of Companies in 2007 free essay sample

A. Problem Summary â€Å"Richard, you will end up in prison or as a millionaire†. These are the words of the headmaster of Stowe, a private boarding school Branson dropped out at 17. His success started by publishing a magazine called Student, then he moved on to mail order records. This is where the Virgin Group started. Richard Branson has developed his brand in a large variety of markets. The over-familiarity of the Virgin brand has caused the consumers to not take the brand in a serious manner. One might argue that he stretched his brand too thin. This lack of focus and over-diversification could result in further over investments in projects that do not hold a steady future. In this paper we will brake down the strategic of sense of apparent entrepreneurial chaos. We will address topics such as key resources, dominant logic, characteristics of markets that conform to this logic, and designing a corporate strategy and structure. We will write a custom essay sample on Richard Branson and the Virgin Group of Companies in 2007 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page B. Analysis †¢ Key Resources o Virgin Brand The Virgin name is the group’s most important asset. The group is involved in a variety of different business ranging from airlines, books, jewelry to limousines. The Virgin Brand strives for value for money, good quality, brilliant customer service, innovation, competitively challenging and fun. The customers receive these attributes in a variety of ways. This is the brand’s competitive advantage. o Branson Branson’s eccentric personality, laid-back look and charisma are the essence of the Virgin brand. Branson embodied the spirit of â€Å"New Britain† to his generation because of his image and entrepreneurial spirit. Branson acted as a magnet for potential entrepreneurs; his brand actively encouraged the creating of fresh business ideas to its development office in London, Sidney and New York. Branson’s opposition to corporate offices led him to conduct business from family homes, houseboats, and vacation homes. His image exuded a carefree approach to exploring new ventures. Branson was impressed by the Japanese approach to business. Their long-term development and focus on organic growth were the key points Branson admired. His networking skills started a very young age. His first team was comprised of childhood friend Nik Powell, and affluent individuals such as Simon Draper and Mike Oldfield. Key management of the Virgin Group is the informal relations between Branson and a small core of long-term associates who form the senior management team of the group. Branson considers cash flow and capital value as important performance indicators, rather than concentrating in accounting profits. His tendency to avoid short-term taxable profits makes his approach ideal, concentrating in long-term capital growth instead. †¢ Dominant Logic The ability of the Virgin Group to operate effectively with so little structure or management systems owes much to the group’s unique organizational culture. This is defined almost entirely by Branson’s management style. His style reflects his sense of fun, disrespect for hierarchy and formal authority, commitment to employees and consumers and belief in hard work and individual responsibility. †¢ Characteristics of Markets that Conform to this Logic o Consumer Branson wanted to offer consumers a â€Å"new deal† by continually being on the lookout for business opportunities. Branson did so by involving venture with direct sales to consumers and passing on the cost savings from bypassing traditional distribution channels. o Dominant Incumbent Branson’s Virgin Travel is the dominant incumbent Virgin brand company. Post 2002 recovery in the airline industry, Virgin Travel was able to turn the largest profit of the Virgin Groups. o High Entry Barriers to Other Start-ups The airline and galactic companies both involve high entry barriers and significant start up costs. In addition to costs, Branson also had to negotiate with governments in order to receive approval. o Branson/Virgin Image Appeals to Customers Branson believed in multiple companies interlocking through managerial and equity linkages in a collaborative network. He accomplished this by having small companies combined and believes â€Å"small is beautiful† with strength through unity. Branson is a strong advocate of sticking it to the large corporations. †¢ Designing a Corporate Strategy and Structure o Business Model Virgin Group is built upon the theory of creating an entrepreneurial incubator and diversifying the corporation as much as possible. Branson does not want his best people to leave the company and start their own ventures. Instead, he prefers to develop them into millionaires within. The company is focused on diversifying into many markets. Some of these markets include travel, jewelry, entertainment, records, and mobile. His corporate strategy is focused on cash flow and capital value. He wants to increase his company’s real value and a long-term cash generation potential. He does not care about his accounting profit. o Type of Structure The Virgin Group is structured as if they are 150 small companies. Each one stands on its own two feet, as if they are their own companies. Employees have a stake in their success. They feel they are crucial to their individual company because they are one-in-fifty or one-in a hundred instead of one-in-tens-of-thousands. All of the companies are under the Virgin umbrella, but none of them are looked at, as simply a subsidiary. C. Alternatives As for the scope for New Approaches to Customer Service, Branson wants to create value for the customers entering with a new anti-establishment attitude, which sought to offer customers a better alternative. Branson hoped to bring a breath of fresh air. Virgin’s brilliant customer service approach strived to be â€Å"friendly, human, and relaxed; professional but not corporate†. According to the financial results of select Virgin Companies from 2004 to 2006. Virgin Retail Limited had a negative net profit in 2004. This branch of Virgin could be looked at to potentially divest. In order to maintain the Virgin name a success. Branson may look to consolidate some of his different brands in the future. With the threat of Britain’s capital gains tax laws, this could eliminate the advantages of multiple off shore companies, which Branson is involved in. D. Recommendation We feel the best alternative for Branson and his Virgin Brand would be to look into divesting out of some markets and focusing more on a smaller scale. Richard should look into investing more into the companies that are performing well and stray from unprofitable, high-risk markets. If Branson looks at the financial standpoint of his companies and possibly divest in the poor performing ones, he could potentially be more successful. Overall, Branson has been mostly successful in his quest for Virgin dominance. There is some room for improvement in Branson’s strategies; however, he is going to do what Branson wants to do. And this strategy has obviously been successful thus far.

Sunday, March 22, 2020

The Four Political Parties Of Canada Essay Example For Students

The Four Political Parties Of Canada Essay The Four Political Parties of CanadaIn a country as vast and as culturally diverse as Canada, many differentpolitical opinions can be found stretched across the country. From the affluentneighbourhoods of West Vancouver to the small fishing towns located on the eastcoast of Newfoundland, political opinions and affiliations range from the leftwing to the right wing. To represent these varying political views, Canada hasfour official national political parties to choose from: the Liberals (who arecurrently in power), the Progressive Conservatives, the New Democrats, and theReform Party. What is particularly interesting is that none of the latter threeparties compose Her Majestys Official Opposition in the House of Commons. TheBloc Quebecois, a Quebec separatist party who only ran candidates in theprovince of Quebec in the last federal election in 1993, won 54 seats in thatprovince, and claimed the title of Her Majestys Loyal Opposition over theReform Party, who garnered only 52 seats. Because the Bloc ran candidates onlyin Quebec, it would be difficult to think of them being a national politicalparty, even though they hold a significant number of seats in the nationallegislature. This paper will examine the significant early history of Canadasfour main national political parties, and then will analyse their current state,referring to recent major political victories/disasters, and the comparison ofmajor economic policy standpoints, which will ultimately lead to a prediction ofwhich party will win the next federal election in Canada. We will write a custom essay on The Four Political Parties Of Canada specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Starting on the far left, there is the New Democratic Party of Canada. Todays modern New Democratic Party was originally called the Co-operativeCommonwealth Federation (CCF), and was founded in 1932. Originally led by a manby the name of James Shaver Woodsworth, the CCF was formed by several radicalfarming groups who found out that they had more similarities with each otherthan just their destitution. The 1920s had been a dark period for radicals andunions within Canada; poverty and significantly lower wages for workers wereprevalent, and apathy regarding these issues was rampant. When the depressionwove its destructive web across Canada in the 1930s, proponents of capitalismwere staggered, but their left-wing opponents were too busy coming to the aid ofthe victims of the depression, and could not deal with the capitalistseffectively. When the CCF was officially formed in Calgary, they adopted theprinciple policy of being a co-operative commonwealth, in which the basicprinciple regulating production, distribution and exchange will be the supplyingof hum an needs instead of the making of profits. (Morton, p.12, 1986)Meanwhile, in Eastern Canada, a group of scholars formed the League for SocialReconstruction (LSR), and gave the Canadian left a version of socialism that wasrelated in some respects to the current social and economic situation in Canada. In 1933, the CCF had its first major convention in Regina, Saskatchewan, and theoriginal policy platform first proposed by the CCF was replaced by a manifestoprepared by an LSR committee and originally drafted by a Toronto scholar, FrankUnderhill. The Regina Manifesto, as it is known as today, put emphasis oneconomic planning, nationalisation of financial institutions, public utilitiesand natural resources, security of tenure for farmers, a national labour code,socialised health services and greatly increased economic powers for the centralgovernment. (Morton, p.12, 1986) As a supplement to the feverish mood createdby the convention, the Regina convention concluded by saying no CCF Governmentwill rest content until it has eradicated capitalism and put into operation thefull programme of socialised planning which will lead to the establishment inCanada of the Co-operative Commonwealth. (Morton, p.12, 1986). The CCF triedto garner more popular support later down the road, and after cal ling itself theNew Party in 1960, it changed its name officially to the New Democratic Party(NDP) in 1962. Over the years, the NDP has become a large force in Canadianpolitics, becoming an alternative to the Conservatives and Liberals. (Morton,pgs.12-27, 1986)Even to the casual Canadian political observer, the NDP is generallyregarded as the party at the bottom of the political barrel at the federal level. In the last Canadian federal election in 1993 under the leadership of AudreyMcLoughlin, the NDP went from holding 43 seats in the House of Commons to only 9. McLoughlin resigned, paving the way for the election of the former leader ofthe Nova Scotia NDP to the federal post, Alexa McDonough in 1994. On theprovincial level, however, the NDP has experienced some success of late. Ontario, British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan have had (or currentlyhave) an NDP provincial mandate. (Guy, p.384, 1995)On the policy front, the NDP seem to be most concerned with a plan forfair taxes now. (fairtaxnow.html, 1997) According to the NDP, its timebanks and big corporations paid their fair share so we can better affordhealth care, education and other services for middle class and workingfamilies. (fairtaxnow.html, 1997) Some of the key points of the NDPs fairtaxes now campaign include a minimum corporate tax, a minimum wealth tax, anend to tax breaks for profitable corporations that lay people off, an end tocorporate deductions for meals and entertainment, and increased federal auditingand enforcement of existing corporate taxes, (fairtaxnow.html, 1997) to name afew. Of course, these recommendations for taxation reform reflect the typicalleft-wing, socialistic standpoints that the NDP has stood for ever since itsinception. Moving further towards the centre of the political scale, the currentfederal governing party in Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada, is found. Liberals in an independent form started to be elected to the variouslegislatures around the country in the middle of the 1800s, with a formal partybeing created in the late 1800s. The purpose of forming a formal party was aresponse to the increasing popularity of the Conservatives in Canada; therural Clear Grits of Upper Canada, the anti-clerical rouges, and the reformelement in the Maritimes came together gradually as the Liberal Party.(McMenemy, pg.10, 1976) In its early years, the Liberal Party reflected thevarious demographics of religion and geography among the voting public in Canada. With widespread support in Canadas rural areas several years afterConfederation, the Liberal Party opposed protectionism and supported commercialreciprocity with the United States. It also opposed MacDonalds program ofrailway construction. Led by Sir Wilfred Laurier, the Liberals supportedunrestricted reciprocity and suffered for it in the election of 1891.(McMenemy, pg.12, 1976) The Liberals policy on trade annoyed industrialists,who were intimidated by the prospect of unlimited trade. British Loyalistsregarded the trade reciprocity as being anti-British. In the latter part of the1890s, however, Laurier adjusted the partys policy on trade reciprocity. Inthe budget of 1897, the Liberals neatly undercut the Conservatives byintroducing the principle of a minimum and a maximum tariff. A chief result ofthis Liberal protectionism was to give British goods a preference in Canada.(McMenemy, pg.12, 1976) Another significant move made by the Liberals was in1903, when Prime Minister Laurier an nounced the construction of a secondtranscontinental railroad. Lauriers minister of railways dissented on the ideaand in turn was sacked by the Prime Minister. By the election of 1904, theLiberals had acquired MacDonalds railway and tariff policy and could thereforewear the previously Conservative mantle of party of nationaldevelopment.'(McMenemy, pg.12, 1976) The Liberal Party of Canada currently forms the federal government ofCanada. Their current leader, Jean Chretien, was elected to succeed John Turnerin 1990. Around the time Chretien was elected leader, questions within andoutside the party were raised regarding the political baggage that Chretiencarried from previous Liberal governments. Despite the controversy, Chretienwon his partys leadership quite comfortably, and returned his party toprominence once again in 1993 by forming a federal government with a largemajority in the House of Commons. Looking back, this current Liberal mandatehas weathered relatively little criticism until recently. One of Chretienscampaign promises in 1993 was to scrap the Goods and Services Tax (GST) if theLiberals were to form a government. To complement that promise by Chretien,Sheila Copps, another prominent Liberal from Hamilton, Ontario, vowed to resignif the GST was not scrapped under a Liberal mandate. Three years into theLiberal mandate, controversy began to rise over Chretiens and Copps promisesregarding the GST. Copps eventually resigned after much criticism, and won backher seat in her Hamilton riding in a by-election several weeks later. Chretienwas subjected to large amounts of public criticism, especially during one of CBCTVs electronic town hall meetings. Chretien argued the fact that theLiberals never said that they were going to scrap the GST, and that peopleshould read their policy guide, the Red Book, to find out where exactly theLiberals stood on the issue of the GST. Chretien argued during this debate thatthe Liberals wanted to replace the GST instead of scrapping it. Earlier clipstaken from the parliamentary channel and radio interviews seemed to contradicthis claim that the Liberals wanted to replace the GST. We hate it and we willkill it! (the GST) were the exact words that came out of Jean Chretiens mouthduring a debate in the House of Commons over the GST, before the Liberals tookpower in 1993. Since the federal election has not been called yet, it has yetto be seen whether or not the Canadian public has lost any faith in the currentPrime Minister. .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .postImageUrl , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:hover , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:visited , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:active { border:0!important; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:active , .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6 .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua8448be0522ce9b01d8bd0b7d39e24b6:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Renaissance and its Humanistic Principles EssayThe Liberals have made the economic revival of Canada one of their toppolicy platforms, so much so that in the online edition of the Red Book,economic policy is chapter one. The Liberals explain their approach toeconomic policy by saying that they will focus on the five major problems facingthe current Canadian economy: lack of growth, high unemployment, high long-termreal interest rates, too high levels of foreign indebtedness, and excessivegovernment debt and deficits. (chapter1.html, 1997) In the online edition ofthe Red Book, the Liberals also state that the better co-ordination of federaland provincial tax and economi c policies must be achieved in the interests ofall Canadians.we will work with the provinces to redesign the current socialassistance programs, to help people on social assistance who are able to work tomove from dependence to full participation in the economic and social life ofthis country.and that Canadians are entitled to trade rules that are fairthat secure access to new markets, and that do not undermine Canadiancommitments to labour and environmental standards. (chapter1.html, 1997)There is also a brief section about the Liberals plan to create many more jobsfor Canadians, which was one of their large campaign platforms during the 1993election. (chapter1.html, 1997)Right of centre on the political scale, the Progressive ConservativeParty of Canada can be found. The Progressive Conservatives (PCs) were, intheir fledgling years, known as the Conservative Party (and before that, theLiberal-Conservatives), and was founded before the Liberal Party of Canada,making it the oldest po litical party in Canada. While it is difficult to pin-point a precise date of origin of the Conservative Party there is neverthelessgood reason for regarding 1854 as the inaugural year for the political groupwhich has continued to this day as the conservative element in Canadianpolitics. (Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965) In 1854, John A. MacDonald, who was tobecome Canadas first Prime Minister ever, led the Conservative Party to officeand began the process which established a nation in the northern part of thiscontinent and set the pattern for that nations political institutions.(Macquarrie, pg.4, 1965) Since Confederation, many events in Canadian politicshave held vast significance in Canadas history. For example: Confederation(1867), Hudson Bay territories joining the dominion (1870), Arctic Islands addedto the dominion (1880), the defeat of reciprocity (1911), the enfranchisement ofwomen (1918), the providing of universal suffrage under the Dominion ElectionsAct (1920), the Statute of Wes tminster (1931), and finally, the addition ofNewfoundland to the Dominion (1949). It is interesting to note that all ofthese significant political occurrences were made under Conservative Partymandates. (Macquarrie, pg.2, 1965) It has been said that if Canada had anIndependence Day it would be December 11, 1931, the date of the proclamation ofthe Statute of Westminster under the regime of Prime Minister R.B. Bennett.(Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965) The Statute of Westminster repealed the Colonial LawsValidity Act and gave Canada absolute legislative autonomy except as requestedby Canada in the case of amendments to the British North America Act.(Macquarrie, pg.107, 1965) This was a recognition of an establishment which waslong overdue. Before the Statute of Westminster was implemented in 1931, it wasunder the rule of another conservative Prime Minister, Sir Robert Borden, inwhich Canada took its largest steps towards having full independence andcomplete national sovereignty. Vigorously and successfully he (Borden) assertedthe equality of nations comprising the Commonwealth. (Macquarrie, pg.3, 1965)In December of 1942, the Conservative Party met at a leadership convention inWinnipeg, and after some prodding by one of the candidates, John Bracken, thename of the Conservative Party was changed to that of the ProgressiveConservatives, in order to reflect the partys progressive goals and intentions. (Macquarrie, pg.122, 1965) Under the name of Progressive Conservative party,John Diefenbaker led the party to the largest landslide victory in the historyof Canadian politics in 1958, just one year after the Diefenbaker government hadwon a minority government. (Guy, pg.393, 1995)In recent years, the Progressive Conservatives have been dealt severeblows at the polls. In 1993, the Progressive Conservatives went from having themajority government in the House of Commons to a mere two seats: current PCleader Jean Charest in Sherbrooke, and Elsie Wayne in Saint John. The PCs canattach their massive defeat in the 1993 election to nine years of rule by BrianMulroney. Mulroney won two large majority governments in 1984 and 1988, but inthe 1988 term, his fortunes turned south. His government was responsible forthe implementation of the hated Goods and Services tax, the Free Trade Agreementwith the United States, and the Meech Lake Accord. Several months before the1993 federal election was cal led, Mulroney stepped down as party leader, whichpaved the way for the election of Kim Campbell, then Justice Minister, to thepost of Prime Minister. Campbell was the first female Prime Minister of Canada,even though she was not elected by the general voting public. Her early days ofcampaigning were regarded as successful for herself and the party, but in thelatter part of the election campaign, debates over whether or not Campbell was acompetent leader were raised. Her trip-up in the late stages of the electioncampaign set the stage for the Custer-like wiping out of her party; she was evensoundly defeated in her own riding of Vancouver Central. Even though thefederal party was decimated, provincial PC parties seemed to hold their ownduring the federal dark times. Currently, there are Progressive Conservativeprovincial governments in Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario and Prince Edward Island. PEI Conservatives won the most recent election, going from only one seat in thePEI legislature to a majority. The Conservatives in Ontario were also recentwinners. Under the leadership of Mike Harris, the Ontario Conservatives oustedthe Ontario NDP in the 1994 provincial election in a landslide victory, perhapsbringing on a second wave of the Big Blue Machine in years to come. Eventhough the Conservatives were given a serious setback in the 1993 federalelection, their commitment to policy-making has not been affected. They havedrafted a Tory Top Ten list of policies that they will campaign with during thenext federal election. Their number one policy standpoint on the Top Ten is taxcuts for jobs: Canadians today are overtaxed. The high tax burden is killingjobs and reducing Canadas competitiveness. We need to create lasting jobs andrekindle the entrepreneurial spirit. Tax cuts will inject life back into theCanadian economy by promoting investment, consumer consumption and jobcreation . (library4.html, 1997) On the income tax front, the PCs are alsocommitted to giving Canadians a 10-20 per cent personal income tax cut, whichwould be phased in over their first term in office. They have also given thesituation regarding the federal debt and deficit a fair amount of thought. Theyintend to balance the federal budget within their first mandate in office, andthat by the time the deficit is eliminated through spending cuts, specifictargets for reduction of the federal debt must be set with measurablemilestones. (Designing a Blueprint for Canadians, pp.6-7, 1996) Finally,their overall economic policy states that Canada should constitute an economicunion within which goods, services, persons and capital may move freely. Anymeasures which unduly discriminate between individuals, goods, services andcapital on the basis of their origin or their destination should beunconstitutional. The strengthening of the Canadian economic union is crucial tofostering economic growth, the flourishing of a common citizenhood, and helpingCanadians reach their full potential. (Designing a Blueprint for Canadians,pgs.40-41, 1996) On the whole, it would appear to the unbiased reader that theProgressive Conservative Party of Canada knows exactly what it stands for. .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .postImageUrl , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:hover , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:visited , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:active { border:0!important; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:active , .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2186c93308f57542e69bb033c16b585d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Media violence EssayEven further to the right side of the political scale, the relativelynew Reform Party of Canada can be found. On the last weekend of October in 1987,306 delegates from Western Canada converged on Alberta, in order to found theparty. These people were fed up with the traditional Liberal/Conservative rulein Ottawa, and wanted a party that could effectively represent the concerns ofWestern Canadians. (Harrison, pgs.110, 112,114, 1995) The delegates facedthree tasks as they met that weekend: to decide upon a name for the party, todevise a constitution, and to pick a leader. The delegates chose the partysname the Reform Party of Canada the first day. (Harr ison, pg.114, 1995)On the second day of the convention, the party started the process of selectinga leader. There were three potential candidates: Preston Manning (the currentleader), Ted Byfield, and Stan Roberts. Byfield was not entirely comfortablewith the idea of being the Reform Partys leader, however, and wanted tocontinue to run his own personal business. A theory that came out of theconvention was that this leadership race was a battle between Roberts oldpolitical style and money against Mannings grass-roots populism. (Harrison,pg.117, 1995) There was also some controversy over the amount of money Robertsspent on his hospitality suite at the convention, which was an estimated $25000. Manning was regarded as being quite frugal, spending around $2000. Even thoughthe difference in the amount of money spent between the two main candidates wasrather large, Manning was regarded as being the stronger of the two candidates,having the unquestionable allegiance of many of the delegates. (Harrison,pg.117, 1995) Roberts knew of the immense support Manning had, and it wasrumoured that he was going to bring in a significant amount of instantdelegates (Harrison, pg.117, 1995) to push him over the top. The Manningcamp got word of this idea, and subsequently closed delegate registration on theFriday night of the convention (it was supposed to run until Saturday morning). This action sent a Roberts supporter by the name of Francis Winspear into a rage,severely criticising the decision to suspend registration and accusing theManning camp that some membership money had been unaccounted for. Withanimosities rising, Jo Anne Hillier called a meeting between the two sides onSaturday night to attempt to resolve the disputes. The attempt atreconciliation failed. (Harrison, pg.117, 1995) The next morning, during anemotional speech, Roberts decided to drop out of the race, all the whilequestioning whether or not the party stood true to its founding principles ofintegrity and honesty. He referred to Mannings supporters as fanaticalAlbertans and small-minded evangelical cranks. (Harrison, pg.118, 1995)This left Preston Manning as the first (and current) leader of one of Canadasnewest political parties, the Reform Party of Canada. In its short history to date, the Reform Party of Canada has had somesuccess federally, and has weathered its share of criticism. In the lastfederal election, they won a total of 52 seats, almost beating out the BlocQuebecois for the title of Her Majestys Loyal Opposition, who won 54 seats. The Reform took one seat in Ontario, one seat in Manitoba, four seats inSaskatchewan, 22 seats in Alberta, and 24 seats in British Columbia. (Guy,pg.434, 1995) There was some debate at the beginning of the Liberals mandatefrom the Reform Party whether or not a separatist party (Bloc Quebecois) shouldbe allowed to be the opposition in Parliament, but the Bloc remained as officialopposition. Lately, however, a Bloc MP resigned his seat, leaving the Bloc witha one seat lead over the Reform Party in the race for official opposition. Thenext federal election should be very interesting, as these two parties mightbattle it out for the right to be opposition again. One moniker that the ReformParty wears that could damage their hopes of ever being the opposition or thegovernment is the fact that many Canadians have the stereotype that Reform MPsand supporters are red-necked hillbillies from out west. A little while back, aReform MP by the name of Robert Wringma made comments of a racial natur e towardsblack and aboriginal people. Wringma suggested that if he were a shopkeeper,and if his patrons were offended by blacks or aboriginals working up in thefront of his shop, he would make sure that the black or aboriginal person(s)working for him would be in the back of the shop while his racist customers wereon the premises. This prompted outrage from minority groups and the generalCanadian population, and Preston Manning was eventually pressured into kickingWringma out of caucus. That particular incident summed up the Reform stereotypeof extreme right-wing views, and it should also be interesting whether or notthis subject surfaces again during the next federal election campaign. On the Reform Partys web page, the policy section is entitled a 6point plan to build a brighter future together. (summary.html, 1997) Theirnumber one priority is to create growth, opportunity, and lasting jobs throughsmaller government, an end to overspending, and lower taxes, to make governmentsmaller by eliminating waste, duplication, and red tape to save $15 billion ayear, and to balance the budget by March 31, 1999. (summary.html, 1997) TheReform Party also intends to give the public tax relief, by having lower taxesfor all Canadians: $2,000 by the year 2000 for the average family, an increasein the Basic Personal Amount and Spousal Amount, cut capital gains taxes in half,cut employers U.I. premiums by 28%, and eliminate federal surtaxes and last butnot least, flatten and simplify the income tax system. (Summary.html, 1997)Their plans for the Unemployment Insurance system are not all that extravagant,but on the home page, they are quoted as saying that they are going to: returnUn employment Insurance to its original purpose: protection against temporary jobloss. (summary.html, 1997) These economic reform policies seem to be relatedsomewhat to the Progressive Conservatives economic reform policies, but they donot go into nearly as much detail as the Conservatives do. Politics in Canada is an extremely volatile business. One day a partycan be on top of the world, and the next day they can be the scourge of theplanet. Politics in Canada has a long and interesting history, so much so thatthis paper has barely even scratched the surface. While the New Democrats andReform are gathering support in different areas of the country, it must beremembered that the only two parties to ever hold federal office in this countryhave been the Conservative and Liberal parties. From examining the variouspartys web pages, it seems that the Liberals and Conservatives have the mostdetailed policy platforms, the Reform Party is simply lacking the detail of theConservatives and Liberals, and the New Democrats have little information toresearch at all. History tends to repeat itself, especially in elections inthis country, and it would not be surprising if the Liberals won another federalmandate this year. The Conservatives look like they are making the long trekback to p rominence, but the Reform Party and New Democrats seem to be treadingwater. The real test that will determine which paths these parties will takeduring the trek into the 21st century, however, will be made in the soon-to-be-called Canadian federal election. Democracy will speak out once again. BIBLIOGRAPHY(1996) A Fresh Start for Canadians Online. Available:http://www.reform.ca/FreshStart/summary.html 1997, Feb.25. Guy, John J. People, Politics and Government. Scarborough: Prentice Hall, 1995. Harrison, Trevor. Of Passionate Intensity. Toronto: University of TorontoPress, 1995. (1996) Liberal Party of Canada Online. Available:http://www.liberal.ca/english2/policy/red_book/chapter1.html 1997, Feb.25. Macquarrie, Heath. The Conservative Party. Toronto: McClelland and StewartLimited, 1965. McMenemy, John, Winn, Conrad. Political Parties in Canada. Montreal: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1976. Morton, Desmond. The New Democrats, 1961-1986. Toronto: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd.,1986. (1996) New Democrats of Canada Online. Available:http://www.fed.ndp.ca/fndp/fairtaxnow.html 1997, Feb.25. Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Designing a Blueprint for Canadians. Ottawa, 1997. (1996) Progressive Conservative Youth Online. Available:http://www.openface.ca/PCU/library4.html 1997, Feb.25.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

The folly of Human Beings is a Constant Source of Amusement to Him Explore Betjeman(TM)s Presentation of the Foolishness of Human Behaviour by Examining at Least Two Poems by Him, One of Which Should be Executive Essays

The folly of Human Beings is a Constant Source of Amusement to Him Explore Betjeman(TM)s Presentation of the Foolishness of Human Behaviour by Examining at Least Two Poems by Him, One of Which Should be Executive Essays The folly of Human Beings is a Constant Source of Amusement to Him Explore Betjeman(TM)s Presentation of the Foolishness of Human Behaviour by Examining at Least Two Poems by Him, One of Which Should be Executive Essay The folly of Human Beings is a Constant Source of Amusement to Him Explore Betjeman(TM)s Presentation of the Foolishness of Human Behaviour by Examining at Least Two Poems by Him, One of Which Should be Executive Essay Essay Topic: Poems Many of John Betjemans poems focus on the different behaviour by humans. He looks at the different aspects of human nature and explores them in different ways and very often uses satire to do so. The idea that the folly of human beings is a constant source of amusement to him is a contentious statement that is also a very strong generalisation and so to a large extent not entirely true. Amusement is a term usually used in a light-hearted way and very often Betjemans presentation of human nature goes past this and is rather more serious. In the poem Executive Betjeman presents the foolishness of human behaviour to the reader in a comical way, however it is clear that Betjeman does not find the behaviour of the Executive amusing but more appalling. The speaker of the poem is a very materialistic character, who boasts about his lifestyle, I am a young executive. No cuffs then mine are cleaner; I have a slim-line briefcase and I use the firms Cortina. The poem is a soliloquy where in the beginning the character is advertising himself. He clearly believes himself to be of high status as he describes himself as an executive which also implies to the reader that he believes himself to have a good and sturdy job. However, this is very soon challenged by the fact he carries a slim-line briefcase implying to the reader that he may not actually have that much work and also the car he is driving belongs to the firm, rather than his own and so it seems that the speaker is making himself appear more important than he really is. Sun and Fun shows a different presentation of folly as rather than presenting this behaviour in a comical way, Betjeman uses a very sad and longing tone that seems very reminiscent that makes the reader sympathise with the nightclub propiertress. Betjeman shows here that the foolishness of human behaviour can actually be quite sad, When Boris used to call in his Sedanca, When Teddy took me Down to his Estate, When my nose excited passion, When my clothes were in the fashion, When my beaux were never cross when I was late, Betjeman uses the past to tense and repeats the word when to emphasise that the life of the propiertress is totally different now and that although that was how she used to behave, in the present tense it is the complete opposite. It seems that with age she has lost her allure and although she was once wanted and desired by many different suitors and used to be courted in luxury cars now she is left wondering What on earth was all the fun for? Here it is clear that Betjeman does not see her foolishness as amusing but as distressing as he presents her folly as what caused her to feel old and ill and terrified and tight when she got older. Executive expresses the epitome of the modern world as it depicts the falseness of what society was becoming as the speaker is very superficial, Ive a scarlet Aston Martin- and does she go? She flies! Owning as Aston Martin would be a luxury, however having it in the colour red shows vulgarity as it is a very tacky colour in which to own a sports car. It is very vibrant and so it also shows that the Executive does not want to hide his wealth but wants everyone to know about it as he is also describing the speed at which he can travel. He clearly has no sense of humility and does not wish to be modest about what he has. He comes across to the reader as very pretentious and just emphasises how foolish he is for being so shallow. Betjeman also portrays the Executives thoughtless qualities when he says, Pedestrians and cats and dogs we mark them down for slaughter. I also own a speed boat which has never touched the water. Betjeman shows that the Executive clearly does not care about anyone other than himself as he would rather go fast in his car than watch out for others. It shows that he is self-important and uncaring which is further emphasised when he talks about his speed-boat as it is clear that he wants to behave as though he has money and has wonderful, expensive items but does not need to use it. The Executive is clearly devoid of all morals and Betjeman mocks him and although it is in a comical way it is not amusing because the serious undertones are clear that he is appalled by this foolish behaviour. There is an element of wry amusement however, it is clear that the Executives need to boast about his material items is portraying what Betjeman was believing the world to become and shows the parts of the modern world and developing society that he detested. On the other hand, however, the beginning of Sun and Fun shows elements of amusements as it begins by rhyming emphasising a more light hearted idea of foolish behaviour in the nightclub. Also, the title Sun and Fun seems relatively jolly and this is very ironic as actually it is about a tired, old nightclub propiertress which shows that her foolishness is amusing to him because the title of the poem is clearly suggesting the opposite idea of what the poem is about. Betjeman does show comedy within the stanza, The ashtrays were unemptied The cleaning unattempted, And a squashed tomato sandwich on the floor. Betjeman shows that the propiertress has a lot of work to do and that her life is a struggle, this is made amusing and comic by Betjemans use of bathos at the end of the stanza. This makes the stanza more light-hearted which is a contrast to the disheartening penultimate and last stanza when she is questioning what the point of it all was. At the beginning of the poem, the reader is given the impression that the propiertress is a figure of amusement; however as the poem finishes it is clear that although there may be comic elements ultimately the propiertress foolish antic when she was younger has let to depressing circumstances and the reader feels more empathetic rather than amusement. Overall, it is clear that the folly of human behaviour does not proved a constant source of amusement to Betjeman because it is clear that the behaviour that he does talk about with satire is not for amusement but what he sees as generally appalling and foolishness leading to greater distress in the future.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility Essay - 1

Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility - Essay Example It is therefore no surprise that generations of corporate managers have grown up believing that business ethics consists merely of complying with civil and criminal law and not doing anything that would damage the reputation of the company or its products (Feiser, 2007). Goran Svensson and Greg Wood in their publication â€Å"A Model of Business Ethics† suggested that there is the need to define a new model of business ethics that needs to encompass not just the internal stakeholders but also the external stakeholders. This includes the society at large. They suggested that the society has expectations of each company, it has perceptions and it evaluates each company against those expectations and perceptions. They also pointed that these standards will be continually reviewed and modified and corporate managers have to measure up to these changes (Svensson & Wood, 2008). The trend for companies to measure up to society’s standards of ethics has been further enhanced by the emergence of large institutional investors as significant players in the capital markets from the early 1970s. These large investors have sparked the trend to what is termed Socially Responsible Investment where these large funds would only invest in companies that set â€Å"acceptable† standards of business ethics. ... This trend has strengthened after the 2008 global financial crisis with investors seeking much higher standards of corporate behaviour than had been acceptable in the past. Ethical corporate behaviour is now enforced by the power of the media scrutiny that can force change. A good recent example is Starbucks in the UK being forced to pay additional tax after social boycott of their outlets following media reports of their tax avoidance practices (Hurley, 2012). The access to the internet and the social media by employees, suppliers and other stakeholders of large corporations also makes sure that ethical business practices are not merely professed but also practiced. In recent times, most public corporations have adopted the practice of publicizing their business ethics and corporate social responsibility projects voluntarily to build up the image of their companies in the media and amongst the investor communities. Various organizations have come up to rank companies on their busine ss ethics and these awards are eagerly sought after. 2. The application of business ethics practices at Anglo-American and Primark 2.1 Anglo – American Anglo American is one of the world’s largest mining companies with revenues of ? 22 billion and profits of ? 8 billion (Anglo-American, 2012). Though it has mining operations all around the world, in countries such as Canada, Australia Brazil and Chile, 76% of its employees live and work on the African continent. The mining industry has some major challenges with respect to business ethics and sustainable development. A 2010 survey of stakeholders conducted by the International Council on Mining & Metals listed some of these issues.